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Water loss and other information (arranged alphabetically by location):

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Estimated Water loss from Leaking Pipelines

Loss

Location

Source

50% Boston, 1977 EPA***
36% Boston, more recently after leak detection initiatives EPA***
81 billion gallons per year California EPA***
10-30% Canadian Supply Systems Environment Canada
(www.ec.gc.ca)
25-30%
(with some municipalities up to 60%)
Canadian drinking water National Research Council of Canada (publication June 1998)
around 20%, average Canadian municipalities, water distribution system losses and unaccounted-for water Environment Canada Report (2004). "Threats to Water Availability in Canada". National Water Research Institute, Burlington, Ontario. NWRI Scientific Assessment Report Series No. 3 and ACSD Science Assessment Series No. 1.
9-10% of water pumped into the system (Toronto Water staff estimate) Canada, Toronto Toronto Star, January 20, 2007 (GTA section, P. B4-B5, article by John Spears)
25% "cities" www.epsrc.ac.uk
around 30% Damascus
(aging piping system)
Marq de Villiers: "Water", Stoddart Publishing Co., 1999.
Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, www.jcpa.org (Jerusalem Letter, 1994)
around 40% due to leaks
(estimate, rural and urban), noting that many water pipelines date back to the 1920's.
Italy U.S. Water News Online, "Dry Faucets Enrage Italians", July 2002.
12.5%
(of total water purchases)
Johannesburg (South Africa) Open letter of Johannesburg Water (Communications and Marketing Dept.) to Sunday Times Newspaper, February 11, 2002
nearly 50% London (UK) Marq de Villiers: "Water", Stoddart Publishing Co., 1999.
more than 55%
(leaks and unlawful use)
Manila, 1997 1997 news release by the International Finance Corporation
37% Mexico City, 1997 Mexico Connect
www.mexconnect.com
32% Mexico City, 1999 Mexico Connect
www.mexconnect.com
40% water losses due to leakage Montreal, Canada Article in London Free Press March 30, 2004: "More water shortages forecast for communities across nation" by Dennis Bueckert, Canadian Press
10% New York City EPA***
nearly 50% two towns on West Coast of Norway, prior to replacement of 35 year old leaking pipes* attributed to a project manager
20%
(corresponding to lost revenues of $150 million per year)
Ontario (a Canadian Province) Ontario Sewer and Watermain Construction Association - OSWCA

(July 10, 2001 General Media Backgrounder)

32 million liters per day (with some pipes dating back to 1809 !) Portsmouth (UK) www.portsmouthwater.co.uk
up to 50-70% "Norwegian Survey" (results of which were published in 1985) - details of leaking system(s) location(s) not provided referenced in:

"Civil Engeineering Practice", P.N. Cheremisinoff et al. Editors, Technomic Publishing Co, Inc., Basel, 1988.

35 % Seoul, Korea Seoul Metropolitan governmnet at
www.metro.seoul.kr/eng/
smg/agenda/2-3.html
more than 50% certain states of former Soviet Union OECD news release**
around 10% Toronto www.city.toronto.on.ca
1998
3.42 billion litres per day though leaking water pipes  (equivalent to about two full baths per home per day) UK (England) Weekly Telegraph, August 15-21, 2007, p.15 (article by H. Wallop) 
up to 30% Ukraine www.mama-86.kiev.ua
average 11% unaccounted-for water United States public supply systems (1980) "The Civil Engineering Handbook", Editor in Chief W.F. Chen, CRC Press, 1995.
average 3.3 -12.7 % unaccounted-for water United States public water systems, in different geographic regions F. van der Leeden et al.: "The Water Encyclopedia", Second Edition, Lewis Publishers, 1990.
average 17.2 % unaccounted-for water United States public water systems serving more than 1 million people F. van der Leeden et al.: "The Water Encyclopedia", Second Edition, Lewis Publishers, 1990.
50% (average) water loss due to leaks, wastage, illegal connections Vietnam cities' distribution systems Do Quang Trung et al.: "Water-loss reduction program in Vietnam", 24th WEDC Conference, Islamabad, Pakistan, 1998.
typically 35% - 55% unaccounted-for water "systems with many old mains in poor condition, .... lack of attention to leaks, ..." A.C. Twort et al.: "Water Supply", Fourth Edition, Arnold, 1994.


* a risk of sewage contamination into the leaking pipes was also reported as a reason for replacement of the leaking pipes.

** An OECD news release has pegged water loss from leaking pipes at more than 50% in distribution systems of NIS States in the former Soviet Union. These leaking piping systems were associated with contamination of drinking water by sewage and resulting serious diseases. See the news release at:
www.oecd.org/media/release/nw00-96a.htm

*** U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Water. Visit the excellent, comprehensive web site at www.epa.gov/OW/ .

 

A leak of only one liter per minute corresponds to more than 510,000 liters per year.
Source: Chlorine Chemistry Council (http://c3.org)

A leak of only one drop per second represents a water loss of 10 000 liters per year.
Source: Environment Canada (www.ec.gc.ca)

A water loss > 150 gallons per minute can result from a 1 inch diameter hole at a pressure of 40 psi.
Source: Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (USA)

Link to water pipelines page for illustration of estimated water leak rate, as a function of pipeline perforation area.

 


Nearly half of the Canadian population fears that their tap water is unsafe for consumption.

Source: Results of a survey released in The National Post on May 12, 2001.

 

    

Copyright 2001-2007 M. Tullmin, All Rights Reserved

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E-mail: tullmin@sympatico.ca

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